create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect - bitmap generator for a  circu-
     lar conductor inside a rectangular conductor (part of atlc)


     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect [options... ]  d  W  H  x  y  Er


     This man page is not a complete set of documentation  -  the
     complexity  of the atlc project makes man pages not an ideal
     way to document it, although out of completeness, man  pages
     are produced. The best documentation that was current at the
     time the version was produced should be found on  your  hard
     drive, usually at
     although it might be elsewhere if your system  administrator
     chose  to  install  the package elsewhere. Sometimes, errors
     are  corrected  in   the   documentation   and   placed   at before a new release of atlc is
     released.  Please, if you notice a problem with the documen-
     tation - even spelling errors and typos, please let me know.


     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect is a pre-processor for atlc, the
     finite difference program that is used to calculate the pro-
     perties of a two-conductor electrical transmission  line  of
     arbitrary       cross       section.       The       program
     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect is used as a fast  way  of  gen-
     erating  bitmaps  (there  is  no need to use a graphics pro-
     gram), for a circular conductor inside a rectangular conduc-
     tor, like this:

     --------------------------------------------------------  ^
     |                                                      |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     |           Dielectric, permittivity=Er                |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     |         <------x------> ^                            |  H
     |       *****             |                            |  |
     |    ***********          y                            |  |
     |   *************         |                            |  |
     |   **************        |                            |  |
     |   <-----d------>        v                            |  |
     |   **************                                     |  |
     |   *************                                      |  |
     |    ***********                                       |  |
     |        ***                                           |  |
     |                                                      |  |
     -------------------------------------------------------   v

     The parameters 'W' and 'H' and the inner dimensions  of  the
     outer  conductor.  The inner conductor has a diameter of 'd'
     and is offset from the centre of the outer conductor  by  an
     amount  'x'  horizontally  and  'y'  vertically.   The space
     between the inner and outer conductors is  a  dielectric  of
     relative  permittivity  'Er'.  If  there  is  just  a vacuum
     dielectric, then 'Er' should be set to 1.0

     The bitmap is printed to standard output, which MUST be  re-
     directed to either a file in one of the following two ways.

     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect  d W H x y Er > filename.bmp OR
     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect -f filename.bmp d W H x y Er

     The bitmaps produced by create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect are  24-
     bit bit colour bitmaps, as are required by atlc.

     The permittivities of the bitmap, set by 'Er', determine the
     colours in the bitmap. If Er1 is 1.0, 1.006, 2.1, 2.2, 2.33,
     2.5, 3.3, 3.335, 3.7, 4.8,  10.2  or  100  then  the  colour
     corresponding  to that permittivity will be set according to
     the colours defined in COLOURS below. If Er is  not  one  of
     those  permittivities, the region of permittivity Er will be
     set to the colour 0xCAFF00. The program atlc does  not  know
     what these permittivites are, so atlc, must be told with the
     -d command line option, as in example 4 below.


     -b bitmapsize
     is used to set the size of the bitmap, and so  the  accuracy
     to  which  atlc is able to calculate the transmission line's
     properties. The default value for 'bitmapsize'  is  normally
     4,  although  this  is set at compile time. The value can be
     set anywhere from 1 to 15, but more than 8 is  probably  not

     -f outfile

     Causes create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect to  print  some  data  to
     stderr. Note, nothing extra goes to standard output, as that
     is expected to be redirected to a bitmap file.


     The 24-bit bitmaps that atlc expects, have 8  bits  assigned
     to  represent the amount of red, 8 for blue and 8 for green.
     Hence there are 256 levels of red, green and blue, making  a
     total of 256*256*256=16777216 colours. Every one of the pos-
     sible 16777216 colours can be defined precisely by the stat-
     ing the exact amount of red, green and blue, as in:

     red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
     green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
     blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
     black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
     white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
     Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
     gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

     Some colours, such as pink, turquoise,  sandy,  brown,  gray
     etc  may mean slightly different things to different people.
     This is not so with atlc, as the program expects the colours
     below  to  be EXACTLY defined as given. Whether you feel the
     colour is sandy or yellow is up to you, but if you use it in
     your  bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour recognised
     by atlc, or you must define it with a  command  line  option
     (see OPTIONS and example 5 below).
     The following conductors are recognised by atlc:
     red    = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000 is the live conductor.
     green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00 is the grounded conductor.
     black  = 000,000,000 or 0x000000 is the negative conductor

     All bitmaps must have the live (red)  and  grounded  (green)
     conductor.  The  black conductor is not currently supported,
     but it will be used to indicate a negative conductor,  which
     will  be needed if/when the program gets extended to analyse
     directional couplers.

     The following dielectrics are recognised by atlc and so  are
     produced by create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect.

     white     255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0   (vacuum)
     white     255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
     blue      000,000,255 or 0x0000FF as Er=2.1   (PTFE)
     Mid gray  142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2   (duroid 5880)
     mauve     255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene)
     yellow    255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5   (polystyrene)
     sandy     239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3   (PVC)
     brown     188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335 (epoxy resin)
     Turquoise 026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8   (glass PCB)
     Dark gray 142,142,142 or ox696969 as Er=6.15  (duroid 6006)
     L. gray   240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
     D. Orange 213,160,077 or 0xD5A04D as Er=100   (for testing)
     If the permittivity is one not in the above list, then those
     parts  of  the  image  with Er1 will be set to 0xCAFF00, and
     those parts with Er2 to 0xAC82AC.


     Here   are    a    few    examples    of    the    use    of
     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect.  Again, see the html documenta-
     tion in atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs for more examples.

     In the first example, there is just an  air  dielectric,  so
     Er1=Er2=1.0.   The inner of 1x1 inches (or mm, miles etc) is
     placed centrally in an outer with dimensions 3 x 3 inches.

     The exact place where the  dielectric  starts  (a)  and  its
     width (d) are unimportant, but they must still be entered.

     % create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 > ex1.bmp
     % atlc ex1.bmp

     In this second example, an inner of 15.0 mm x 0.5 mm is sur-
     rounded  by an outer with internal dimensions of 61.5 x 20.1
     mm. There is a material with permittivity 2.1 (Er  of  PTFE)
     below    the    inner    conductor.    The    output    from
     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect is sent to a file ex1.bmp, which
     is then processed by atlc

     % create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5 1.0
     2.1 > ex2.bmp
     % atlc ex2.bmp

     In example 3, the bitmap is made larger, to  increase  accu-
     racy, but otherwise this is identical to the second example.
     % create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect -b7 61.5 20.1 5 22 0.5 50 15 5
     1.0 2.1 > ex3.bmp
     % atlc ex3.bmp

     In   the   fourth   example,   instead    of    re-directing
     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect's  output  to  a file with the >
     sign, it is done using the -f option.
     % create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect -f ex4.bmp 61.5 20.1 5 22  0.5
     50 15 5 1.0 2.1
     % atlc ex4.bmp

     In the fifth example, materials with permittivites 2.78  and
     7.89  are  used.  While  there  is  no  change in how to use
     create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect, since these permittivities  are
     not known, we must tell atlc what they are.

     % create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect 61 20 1 4 22 0.5 50 15 5  2.78
     7.89 > ex5.bmp % atlc -d CAFF00=2.78 -d AC82AC=7.89 ex5.bmp

     In the sixth and final example, the -v  option  is  used  to
     print     some     extra     data     to     stderr     from


     atlc(1)                       create_bmp_for_circ_in_circ(1)
     create_bmp_for_symmetrical_stripline(1)    design_coupler(1)
     find_optimal_dimensions_for_microstrip_coupler(1) readbin(1)                - Home page       - Download area
     atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
     atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
     atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples

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